All Seminars


Developing ICT Based Budget Formulation and Management Systems/Modules

03/19/2018 - 03/23/2018 Ebene, Mauritius

Several AFS countries are currently experiencing significant challenges with the operation of their budget management systems. AFS countries typically rely on a combination of excel/word based models to analyze, formulate, integrate, aggregate and present their annual budgets. In some countries, the information generated by the budget models is subsequently transferred to the Treasury Financial Management Systems (FMIS) to facilitate budget execution. In the face of tight budget deadlines this budget systems framework typically results in considerable budget directorate effort to ensure the integrity of budget data and limit the scope of budget analysis and presentation. Such constraints negatively affect budget analysts’ ability to: (i) consider alternative budget options; (ii) provide an effective budget challenge function; (iii) ensure the timeliness of budget analysis and submissions; and (iv) ensure the quality, accessibility and credibility of the final budget. Ultimately these challenges combine to undermine effective budget implementation and management.

International Survey on Revenue Administration (ISORA) and Managing Performance

03/12/2018 - 03/16/2018 Ebene, Mauritius

Revenue administrations are responsible for administering and providing information for analysis of tax policy. To be effective in their mandate and efficient in managing compliance, revenue administrations need information for control and decision making. They need to set and monitor clearly defined performance indicators, at all levels (strategic, operational and tactical) across the entire revenue authority.

This is a seminar for officers responsible for managing corporate performance and it shall cover the role of data in effective management of performance in a revenue administration. It shall cover how revenue administrations could use data analysis to “put a finger on the pulse” of the revenue administration business and on how to allocate finite
resources to manage infinite challenges to ultimately optimize revenue performance. The seminar shall carry the participants through a deep dive exercise into the international survey on revenue administration (ISORA) and the findings of the November 2016 round. It shall also provide an opportunity for officers from the 13 AFS countries to share country experiences and learn from each other on overcoming challenges to institutionalizing good performance management practices for enhancing revenue performance.

Fiscal Policy Analysis

02/26/2018 - 03/09/2018 Ebene, Mauritius

This course, presented by the IMF's Institute for Capacity Development, aims at providing an overview of the key fiscal policy concepts and techniques used to analyze how fiscal policy can help ensure macroeconomic stability and sustainable long-term growth. This hands-on course is built around core macro-fiscal topics needed to analyze fiscal policy. Units will be substantiated by general empirical findings, Excel-based workshops, case studies, and selected topics of regional interest. The course will be of interest to officials who wish to gain a broad understanding of the impact of fiscal policy on the economy and related tools of analysis.

Course objectives:
Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to:
- discuss the role of fiscal policy in attaining the key objectives of the government’s macroeconomic stability, equity and efficiency, and sustainable long-term growth; and
- use the relevant tools and techniques to assess the fiscal stance, fiscal multipliers, and debt sustainability.

The course will also review the key elements of tax and expenditure policy: concepts and best practices.

Compilation of Price Statistics

02/19/2018 - 02/23/2018 Ebene, Mauritius

The main objective is to strengthen the participants’ knowledge of price index concepts and methods. The focus will be on specific data sources and compilation procedures.
This five-day seminar will focus on specific issues and challenges relating to the implementation of international standards and best practices regarding the compilation of price indices. Topics will include general price indices issues, challenges, and problems such as developing/updating weights, selecting samples, quality adjustment issues, pricing difficult items, and others. Participants will be invited to list specific questions, topics, issues which will be discussed during the seminar.

Proficiency in Microsoft Excel is required

Financial Market Infrastructure and Payments System (TBC)

01/15/2018 - 01/19/2018 Ebene, Mauritius

To be determined

Compilation of National Accounts

12/04/2017 - 12/08/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

The main objective is to strengthen knowledge of the national accounts concepts and methods. The seminar will consist of lectures and workshop sessions covering methodological and compilation issues based on the 2008 System of National Accounts.

Proficiency in Microsoft Excel is required.

Modernizing the Legal Framework in Compliance with the CPSS-IOSCO Principles ...

11/27/2017 - 12/01/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

The financial market infrastructures (FMIs) are generally sophisticated multilateral systems that handle significant transaction volumes and sizable monetary values. These systems are used for the purposes of clearing, settling, or recording payments, securities, derivatives, or other financial transactions. FMIs allow participants to manage their risks more effectively and efficiently, and, in some instances, reduce or eliminate certain risks. Some are critical to helping central banks conduct monetary policy and maintain financial stability. By performing centralized activities, however, FMIs concentrate risks and create interdependencies between and among FMIs and participating institutions.

Macroprudential Approach to Supervision and Managing Systemic Risk

10/30/2017 - 11/03/2017 SARB Academy,Pretoria,South Africa

While many countries in the southern African region are implementing select elements of the Basel III Capital Adequacy Standard, there are policy and strategic demands on a number of them to complete implementation of Basel II and adopt some of the elements of Basel III. Further, several countries in the region are adopting a macroprudential approach to supervision and putting in place macroprudential regulations. In addition, many central banks in the region are setting up financial stability frameworks, which have a macroprudential dimension. With the increasing adoption of macroprudential tools as part of regulatory frameworks, the focus has now shifted to the implementation of these tools. This seminar will highlight practical implementation issues of interest to practitioners and policymakers. Particular emphasis will be put on discussing and drawing lessons from the experience of authorities around the world in implementing various elements of the
macroprudential toolbox.

The primary goal of the seminar is to make the participants aware of the inter-linkages, overlaps and similarities amongst these standards and frameworks. Aided by this awareness, officials will be better equipped to design supervisory frameworks appropriate for their jurisdictions.

The participants will have the opportunity to discuss and learn the following:
- microprudential and macroprudential supervision: concepts, history, and current thinking
- Basel II and Basel III: evolution of the supervisory reform agenda
- designing macroprudential tools – conceptual aspects and governance arrangements
- the buffers in Basel III
- countercyclical toolkit and recent experiences
- leverage requirement in Basel III
- capital requirement for systemically important banks under Basel III and Supervisory review Process (SRP) for systemically important banks under Pillar 2 of Basel II
- liquidity requirement under Basel III and liquidity risk assessment under Pillar 2 of Basel II
- microprudential stress testing under Basel II and macroprudential stress testing: concepts and case studies
- risk-based supervision (RBS), Pillar 2 of Basel II and macroprudential approach to supervision in Basel III
- presentation by participants of country experiences

The seminar will require close interaction among the participants, with the resource persons guiding the interactions.

Participants from select countries will be asked to make presentations on their country experiences. Presentations will be made by international experts, including from IMF headquarters. Participants are expected review the reading materials on the list of references.

This course will be conducted in collaboration with the South African Reserve Bank’s Academy.

Prevention and Management of Government Expenditure Arrears: Theory & Practices

10/30/2017 - 11/03/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

The accumulation of government expenditure arrears is one of the biggest challenges in public financial management (PFM). A recent survey of 121 Public Expenditure and Financial
Accountability (PEFA) assessments revealed that in only 31 percent of countries was the stock of central government arrears less than 2 percent of total central government expenditure. In almost 20 percent of countries it was more than 10 percent; in 22 percent it was between 2 and 10 percent; and in 28 percent the information was not available demonstrating lack of both adequate reporting and control. AFS countries are also concerned by this issue. The accumulation of expenditure arrears by governments can have a serious negative effect on the economy: a large flow of arrears may disguise the true size of the government deficit, significantly reduce the impact of fiscal policy on aggregate demand, and potentially undermine macroeconomic stability.

Government expenditure arrears are financial obligations that have been incurred by any level of the public sector for which payments have not been made by the due date. Payments may be overdue based on a legal obligation (such as payment of social security benefits, or salaries), a specific contractual commitment (such as payment for construction of a road), or a continuing service arrangement (such as payment for electricity supply). The value of expenditure arrears constitutes the amount of the original overdue payment, as well as any interest or financial penalties that the government might accrue (and not pay) as a result.

Persistent expenditure arrears are typically a symptom of underlying weaknesses in a country’s PFM system. Expenditure arrears can be the result of failures at any or all stages of the PFM cycle, including: an inadequate legal framework; unrealistic budgeting; weak or cumbersome commitment or expenditure controls; inefficient cash management; lack of or problems with the integrity and functionality of the financial management information system (FMIS); or gaps in fiscal reporting. Another reason that expenditure arrears can accumulate is that governments are not aware of them. The most effective approach to dealing with expenditure arrears, therefore, depends on their underlying causes and usually requires concerted action in a number of PFM areas.

Intelligence and Investigation in Customs

09/25/2017 - 10/06/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

The seminar will provide a forum for discussion to explore the challenges to Customs intelligence and investigation
programs and build capacity of the participants by looking at:
- the systematic collection and processing of intelligence information;
- the various components involved in the gathering, evaluation, collation, analysis and dissemination of information;
- the principles and procedures associated with the investigation of customs and fraud offences; and
- an investigation (case study) from the point of referral through to the end of the civil assessment and/or prosecution in court.

Monetary Policy Communication

09/25/2017 - 09/29/2017 Accra, Ghana

Communication is key for building credibility for monetary policy. It is also crucial to consolidate the gains and ensure the continued progress in the areas of inflation forecasting, monetary policy analysis and monetary policy implementation that has already occurred in the region. Communication also plays an important role in building general knowledge about the central bank and its role in the economy. As central banks in the region develop, they also become more transparent in line with best practice. Being transparent, however, is not necessarily the same as communicating, and the demand from central banks for assistance in building their communications capacity is steadily increasing.

The purpose of this jointly organized seminar is to further develop central banks’ capacity to communicate monetary policy in a way that is suitable to their overall capacity and the prevailing environment in each country, thereby strengthening the implementation of monetary policy. The seminar will discuss the role of communications units, the nature of communication in the daily work of a central bank, and relevant strategic documents. Moreover, it will involve developing tools/channels for communication (webpage, reports, speeches, press releases, etc) and relations with stakeholders, especially with the media. The seminar will also cover internal communication of monetary policy, which is another important element in effective communication.

Some central banks in the region have already started to establish communication units and to develop communication strategies and policies, while others are just realizing this need. One valuable objective of the seminar will be peer learning by having the more experienced participants share their knowledge and experience. The joint participation of AFRITACs South and West 2 provides an opportunity for a richer and broader exchange of views and experiences. Other challenges facing central banks in the sub-Saharan African region, such as language barriers, relative financial illiteracy, and limited internet access, will also be discussed during the seminar.

The seminar will require close interaction among the participants, with the resource persons guiding the interactions. Representatives from select countries will be asked to make presentations based on their experience and current practice in some areas. The practical workshops during the seminar are designed to enhance the participants’ ability to use different tools/channels in communication and to think more strategically about communication.

FX Market Dealing Simulation Workshop for Central Bank Officials

09/04/2017 - 09/08/2017 Johannesburg, South Africa

The purpose of this jointly organized seminar is to further develop the central banks’ capacity to communicate monetary policy in a way that is suitable to the capacity of banks and the prevailing environment in each country, thereby strengthening the implementation of monetary policy. The seminar will discuss the role of Communications units, the nature of communication in the daily work of a central bank, and relevant strategic documents. Moreover, it will involve developing tools/channels for communication (web page, reports, speeches, press releases, etc) and relations with stakeholders, especially with the media. Another important element in effective communication, that the seminar will also cover, is the internal communication of monetary policy.

Enhancing the Basel Process -Recent Developments in Basel II & Basel III

08/21/2017 - 08/25/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

Implementation of the Basel III framework is a key global regulatory reform priority. Full and consistent implementation within the internationally agreed timeframe is aimed at strengthening the resilience of the banking system, improving market confidence in regulatory ratios and promoting a level playing field. Developments are taking place in implementing different facets of Basel III such as the leverage ratio, liquidity requirements, and capital buffers. The seminar is designed to familiarize participants with the underlying concepts of these requirements and equip them with the tools and techniques for conducting supervision of banks/financial institutions under the revised framework in the most effective way.

Fiscal Risk Analysis and Management; Theory and Practices

07/31/2017 - 08/08/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

Monitoring and managing fiscal risks—factors that may cause fiscal outcomes to deviate from expectations or forecasts—are always key aspects of policymaking. Common sources of fiscal risks include natural disasters or shocks to such macroeconomic variables as exchange rates and interest rates, but also the fiscal implications of bail-outs of banks, public enterprises, pension funds, and local governments, or other contingent liabilities, such as guarantees (including those embedded in public-private partnerships) and legal claims against the government. In addition, accuracy and transparency of the central government’s fiscal accounts reduce the likelihood that debts and deficits will be unexpectedly revised upward at a later stage. Indeed, lack of accurate information can be a source of risks.

Financial Development and Financial Inclusion

06/19/2017 - 06/30/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

This course, presented by the IMF's Institute for Capacity Development, outlines the macroeconomic relevance of financial development and financial inclusion. Beginning with an analytical framework that defines the role of finance in the economy, the course reviews the conceptual and empirical literature on the impact of finance on macroeconomic stabilization and growth. It also addresses key policy issues to encourage financial development (market enabling policies) and limit its potential destabilizing effects (market harnessing policies). The course introduces financial inclusion as an integral dimension of financial development, reviews the indicators used to measure financial inclusion, the distinct macroeconomic impact of financial inclusion, and the main policy strategies that have been pursued

Debt Sustainability Analysis using the MF MAC DSA

05/01/2017 - 05/05/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

IMF AFRITAC South concludes tomorrow a week-long regional seminar on debt sustainability analysis, in collaboration with the IMF’s Strategy, Policy and Review Department. Participants included government officials from Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Mauritius, Seychelles, South Africa and Swaziland.

The seminar focused on the IMF’s standardized framework used to conduct public debt sustainability analysis in market access countries through a series of hands-on exercises in the application of the template and the interpretation of the results. Discussions centered on the debt sustainability analysis of the delegates’ respective countries.

Debt Sustainability Analysis using the joint World Bank-IMF for LIC DSF

04/24/2017 - 04/28/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

During April 24-28, 2017 AFRITAC South, in collaboration with the Strategy, Policy and Review Department of the IMF and the Macroeconomic and Fiscal Management Global Practice of the World Bank, held a regional seminar on debt sustainability analysis for low income countries. The event was hosted by the AFRITAC South at the facilities of Africa Training Institute in Mauritius.

The seminar brought together government officials from Comoros, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It focused on the main principles of debt sustainability and the link to the IMF’s Debt Limit Policy and the Bank’s Non-Concessional Borrowing Policy. IMF and Bank experts presented and discussed with seminar participants the IMF-World Bank Debt Sustainability Framework (DSF) for Low-Income Countries (LICs). The DSF is a standardized framework for conducting public and external debt sustainability analysis in LICs. It aims to help guide the borrowing decisions of LICs, provide guidance for creditors’ lending and grant allocation decisions, and improve IMF and World Bank assessments and policy advice.

The hands-on approach focused on how to develop baseline stress-test scenarios by using the DSF and how to interpret the results from the debt sustainability analysis. Specific attention was given to practical application of the framework by engaging participants to use the analytical tool and interpret results. Participants discussed the importance of the individual country context and macroeconomic and technical challenges they face in using the DSF as a tool for guiding their countries’ borrowing decisions.

Compilation of National Accounts

04/24/2017 - 04/28/2017 Statistics South Africa and Sheraton Hotel Pretoria, South Africa

AFRITAC South is conducting a seminar on seasonal adjustments in national accounts. The focus will be on specific issues, including seasonal patterns and calendar effects in national accounts time series. Twenty-four compilers from eight countries (Angola, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa, and Zambia) will participate.

The seminar will consist of lectures and workshop sessions covering methodological and compilation issues to provide compilers of national accounts statistics with basic knowledge of seasonal adjustment. The seminar will include compilation sessions using countries’ datasets. The software used will be JDemetra+.

Addressing Integrity in Customs Administration

04/03/2017 - 04/07/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

AFRITAC South is conducting a seminar this week to strengthen the knowledge of government statisticians on consumer and producer price index concepts and methodology. The approach is to address specific challenges identified by the seminar participants in implementing international standards and best practice in statistics.

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

04/03/2017 - 04/07/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

AFRITAC South is hosting a seminar this week on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) with specific focus on enhancing the skills and competencies of the officials in the bank supervision departments of Sub Saharan African Countries. Nine Southern Africa countries are represented by 25 middle to senior level bank supervisors in this seminar. The overarching goal of the seminar is to enhance the ability of prudential regulators and bank supervisors/examiners to understand the implementation challenges of IFRS and equip them with the tools and techniques for conducting supervision of banks/financial institutions in the most effective way. Resource persons include Mr. V. Venkataramanan, Partner, KPMG, India an internationally recognized expert in IFRS implementation, Mr. Amarjit Chopra, Chairman, National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards, India which is the Apex body in endorsing the Accounting Standards, and Mr. P.R.Ramesh, Chairman, Deloitte India and a Member of the various Committees constituted by Government of India/ Reserve Bank of India on IFRS implementation. The discussions will address regional and national challenges in complying with IFRS through sharing of experience by participants on the strategies adopted by them in their jurisdictions.

Compilation of Price Statistics

03/13/2017 - 03/17/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

AFRITAC South is conducting a seminar this week to strengthen the knowledge of government statisticians on consumer and producer price index concepts and methodology. The approach is to address specific challenges identified by the seminar participants in implementing international standards and best practice in statistics.

Macroeconomic Diagnostics

02/27/2017 - 03/10/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

This course aims to strengthen participants’ ability to assess a country’s macroeconomic situation, emphasizing practical tools for use in day-to-day macroeconomic analysis.

Strengthening Budget Documentation and Fiscal Decision Making

02/06/2017 - 02/10/2017 Ebene, Mauritius

AFRITAC South is hosting a seminar during February 6-10, 2017 on strengthening budget documentation and fiscal decision making. Eight Southern Africa countries are represented by 26 government officials on a platform for developing and exchanging knowledge with peers, including ideas and experiences for improving the content of budget documentation. The discussions will address options for ways to best integrate and use budget documents in the budget cycle. Ideas will also be exchanged on improving strategic communication for different levels of budgetary stakeholders.

Compilation of National Accounts

12/05/2016 - 12/09/2016 Ebene, Mauritius

AFS delivers a Regional Seminar on Compilation of National Accounts with 40 participants from 13 countries.

The seminar strengthened knowledge of the national accounts concepts and methods. The focus was on specific data sources, methodology and coordination issues for the compilation of GDP estimates and beyond.

The seminar consisted of lectures and workshop sessions covering methodological and compilation issues. Emphasis was placed on the compilation of GDP, gross national income, gross national disposable income, and gross saving. The following topics were covered:

– Stock-take of national accounts aggregates in AFS countries and plans for development
– Coordination issues: inter-agency collaboration and data quality improvements
– Conceptual issues

Public Investment Management

11/28/2016 - 12/02/2016 Ebene, Mauritius

AFS delivers a Regional Seminar on Public Investment Management with 26 participants from 10 countries.

Opening the seminar, the AFS coordinator, Ms. Effie Psalida, noted that public investment is essential to the creation of the infrastructure and physical assets needed for both private sector development and inclusive and equitable social and economic growth. Recent Fiscal Affairs Department (FAD) analytical work has however suggested that the current outcomes of public investment projects could be improved by more than 30 percent, in developing countries, if current efficiency gaps could be addressed. During the course of the seminar participants learnt how to identify and quantify efficiency gaps and assess public investment planning, allocation and implementation institutions, using the IMF’s new Public Investment Management Assessment (PIMA) tool. Participants also shared experience on how the PIMA could be used to develop measures and actions necessary to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and outcomes of public investment. Further information on the PIMA is available at

Evolving Monetary Policy Frameworks

11/07/2016 - 11/11/2016 Ebene, Mauritius

The IMF’s Regional Technical Assistance Center for Southern Africa (AFRITAC South), the Monetary and Capital Markets department, and the Africa Training Institute are delivering this week a regional seminar on Improving Monetary Policy Frameworks. The seminar has 33 participants from mid-level management and relevant technical staff involved in the practical discussion of monetary policy conduct and implementation from: Botswana, The Gambia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, and Zambia

This seminar follows the November 3-4 peer-exchange event for central bank Deputy Governors and Directors of Monetary Policy, Research, and Operations, and discusses at a more technical level the design and implementation of effective monetary policy frameworks as presented in the IMF paper on Evolving Monetary Policy Frameworks in Low-Income and Other Developing Countries. The seminar gives practical guidance including examples from developing economies. It also gives the opportunity for participants to interact with their peers from 11 countries, who are embarking on the same journey of monetary policy modernization. The topics, designed to re-enforce the key principles outlined in the IMF policy paper, cover price stability, operational independence, the operational framework, forward looking monetary policy strategy, and effective central bank communication.

High-level Seminar on Evolving Monetary Policy Frameworks

11/03/2016 - 11/04/2016 Ebene, Mauritius

Tax Administration Compliance: Extractive Industries Taxation

10/17/2016 - 10/21/2016 Ebene, Mauritius

AFRITAC South, in partnership with the Managing Natural Resource Wealth Trust Fund, is this week holding a seminar on how to mobilize revenue most effectively. The seminar, which has 36 participants from 12 national tax administrations in the region, provides a platform for benchmarking extractive industry taxation against best international practice and is an important peer-learning opportunity. The discussion will cover ways to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of a revenue administration, and the intricate balance between improving revenue collection while remaining an attractive investment destination.

Organization of Central Government Finance Functions (CFF)

08/15/2016 - 08/19/2016 Ebene, Mauritius

The seminar focused on a newly developing area of public financial management (PFM), namely the organization of central finance functions in government. Participants discussed key organizational issues of PFM policy and practice in their home countries, and emerging challenges—technical, administrative, cultural, and political—to reform. Conclusions were reached and recommendations were developed for enhancing CFF organizational structures, strengthening coordination and improving capability in relation to macro-fiscal management, budget formulation, budget execution and fiscal reporting.

Financial Market Analysis

08/01/2016 - 08/12/2016 Ebene, Mauritius

A two-week course - August 1-12 - presented by the IMF's Institute for Capacity Development, introduces participants to the fundamentals of financial market analysis that are part of the toolkit of policymakers. These tools are used to study the characteristics and pricing of financial instruments and to analyze asset portfolios and risk management. Topics include: bond pricing and volatility--duration and convexity; term structure of interest rates; equity pricing; asset allocation and diversification; and value at risk.

Managing Government Compensation and Employment

06/20/2016 - 06/24/2016 Ebene, Mauritius

Southern Africa government officials participated in an AFRITAC South regional seminar on government compensation and employment from June 20 to 24, 2016. The event, which was hosted by the Africa Training Institute in Mauritius, brought together officials from Botswana, Comoros, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
The seminar focused on the conceptual framework of the IMF’s recently published Board paper, “Managing Government Compensation and Employment – Institutions, Policies, and Reform Challenges” ( and the related background (, with lectures and group sessions structured on strengthening the key institutions that underpin the effective management of wage bill spending. This requires adequate fiscal planning to ensure appropriate financing of the wage bill, competitive compensation to attract and retain skilled staff and incentivise performance, and the flexibility to adjust the level and compensation of employment to reach efficient levels.
IMF staff and international experts presented and discussed with participants the cross country findings and options for adapting and strengthening the relevant institutions. Country case studies and peer group discussions raised specific challenges and the feasibility of reform measures, given the economic, social and political context within the region. Wage bill spending draws a growing share of national budgets in the region. A number of countries face difficult tradeoffs with pressures to expand public service coverage while addressing the challenges of revenue and financing constraints and public investment needs.
AFRITAC South will continue to provide technical assistance and hands-on training, facilitating specialized peer-learning for macro-fiscal medium-term frameworks and expenditure management that support the strengthening of wage bill management.

+ Bank Supervision

Enhancements to the Basel Process –Revisions to standardized approaches

11/14/2016 - 11/18/2016 South Africa Reserve Bank (SARB) Academy, Pretoria, South Africa

AFS organized a seminar for SADC countries on Enhancements to the Basel Process-Revisions to standardized approaches for credit, market, and operational risks and developments relating to Basel III at the SARB Academy in Pretoria on November 14-18, 2016.The seminar focused on enhancing the skills and competencies of the staff in the bank supervision departments of these countries. Mr. Kuben Naidoo, Deputy Governor in charge of banking Supervision at the SARB inaugurated the seminar in the presence of Ms. Effie Psalida, AFS Coordinator.